Depends on D18961. Ref T13049. Currently, longer exports don't give the user any feedback, and exports that take longer than 30 seconds are likely to timeout.
For small exports (up to 1,000 rows) continue doing the export in the web process.
For large exports, queue a bulk job and do them in the workers instead. This sends the user through the bulk operation UI and is similar to bulk edits. It's a little clunky for now, but you get your data at the end, which is far better than hanging for 30 seconds and then fataling.